Efficient implementations of Quicksort are not a stable sort, meaning that the relative order of equal sort items is not preserved. develop by British computer scientist Tony Hoare in 1959 and published in 1961, it is still a normally used algorithm for sorting. Robert Sedgewick's Ph.D. thesis in 1975 is considered a milestone in the survey of Quicksort where he resolved many open problems associated to the analysis of various pivot choice schemes including Samplesort, adaptive partitioning by Van Emden as well as derivation of expected number of comparisons and swaps. Jon Bentley and Doug McIlroy integrated various improvements for purpose in programming library, including a technique to deal with equal components and a pivot scheme known as pseudomedian of nine, where a sample of nine components is divided into groups of three and then the median of the three medians from three groups is choose. In the Java core library mailing lists, he initiated a discussion claiming his new algorithm to be superior to the runtime library's sorting method, which was at that time based on the widely used and carefully tuned variant of classic Quicksort by Bentley and McIlroy.

Recursively use the above steps to the sub-array of components with smaller values and separately to the sub-array of components with greater values. The pivot choice and partitioning steps can be done in several different ways; the choice of specific implementation schemes greatly affects the algorithm's performance.

```
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
/*Displays the array, passed to this method*/
void display(int arr[], int n)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
{
printf("%d ", arr[i]);
}
printf("\n");
}
/*Swap function to swap two values*/
void swap(int *first, int *second)
{
int temp = *first;
*first = *second;
*second = temp;
}
/*Partition method which selects a pivot
and places each element which is less than the pivot value to its left
and the elements greater than the pivot value to its right
arr[] --- array to be partitioned
lower --- lower index
upper --- upper index
*/
int partition(int arr[], int lower, int upper)
{
int i = (lower - 1);
int pivot = arr[upper]; // Selects last element as the pivot value
int j;
for (j = lower; j < upper; j++)
{
if (arr[j] <= pivot)
{ // if current element is smaller than the pivot
i++; // increment the index of smaller element
swap(&arr[i], &arr[j]);
}
}
swap(&arr[i + 1], &arr[upper]); // places the last element i.e, the pivot to its correct position
return (i + 1);
}
/*This is where the sorting of the array takes place
arr[] --- Array to be sorted
lower --- Starting index
upper --- Ending index
*/
void quickSort(int arr[], int lower, int upper)
{
if (upper > lower)
{
// partitioning index is returned by the partition method , partition element is at its correct poition
int partitionIndex = partition(arr, lower, upper);
// Sorting elements before and after the partition index
quickSort(arr, lower, partitionIndex - 1);
quickSort(arr, partitionIndex + 1, upper);
}
}
int main()
{
int n;
printf("Enter size of array:\n");
scanf("%d", &n); // E.g. 8
printf("Enter the elements of the array\n");
int i;
int *arr = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int) * n);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
{
scanf("%d", &arr[i]);
}
printf("Original array: ");
display(arr, n); // Original array : 10 11 9 8 4 7 3 8
quickSort(arr, 0, n - 1);
printf("Sorted array: ");
display(arr, n); // Sorted array : 3 4 7 8 8 9 10 11
getchar();
return 0;
}
```